Mongolia is a landlocked country located in East and Central Asia. It is bordered by the Russian Federation to the north and by the People’s Republic of China to the south. The country is surrounded by mountains at the heart of the Eurasian landmass, and has an average altitude of 1,580 meters above sea level. Mongolia has a harsh continental climate due to this location. The Altai, Khangai and Khentii mountain ranges run across the northern and western parts of the country, and the Gobi desert zone covers the eastern and southern parts. Mongolia is rich in minerals including coal, iron ore and copper.
Mongolia is a republic with a unicameral parliament. The head of state is the President and the head of government is the Prime Minister. According to the Mongolian National Statistics Office (2021) the population is 3.4 million. The official language is Mongolian.
Climate of Mongolia
The main feature of Mongolia’s climate is a large difference between the four seasons of the year, which is characterized by high temperature fluctuations, low levels of precipitation, and a clear latitudinal and altitudinal difference in climate.
Air temperature: The average annual temperature in Mongolia is 0.2° C (32° F). The average winter temperature ranges between -10° and -30° C (14° and 22° F) and the average summer temperature between 10° and 27° C (50° and 80° F). The average annual temperature is -4° C (24.8° F) in the mountainous areas of the Altai, Khangai, Khentii and Khuvsgul. Annual temperatures are 2° C (35.6° F) higher on average in the desert steppe zone, and up to 6° C (42.8° F) higher in the southern Gobi.
Although the total amount of precipitation in Mongolia is low, the amount varies from area to area depending on the location of mountains and their elevation. For example, 250-390 mm per year falls in the mountainous areas of the Khangai, Khuvsgul and Khentii, and in the large river valleys cutting through them. In the Altai mountains the average precipitation is 90-130 mm per year. In steppe regions the average annual precipitation is 180-280 mm. Gobi regions see low annual levels of precipitation at 40-150 mm.
A time zone is a method of dividing the earth’s latitude by 24 hours and comparing the time of each country with another. Along the latitudes, countries are at the same time, and along the longitude, they are usually at different times. The time zone starts in Greenwich, England and runs east. Mongolia counts the time 8 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time.
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Reference: The Archives and Database Division, Meteorological and Environmental Research Agency